Đề tài Cách viết bài luận Tiếng Anh

Topic: Indian Festival

 The Milwaukee Native American Indian Festival is truly and amazing event. For three days in September every year, thousands gather in Milwaukee, USA, to celebrate Indian culture. Last year, I was lucky enough to attend the festival and experience it for myself.

 The preparations take months. Dance teams from all over the country practise to compete in the tribal Pow Wow dance contest. Indian craftsmen work to produce the many traditional items on display. Then, in the week before the festival, the stalls are put up and the food is prepared, so that everything will be ready for the big day.

 The celebrations began at 4pm and there was plenty to see and do. I visited a traditional Indian village, watched skilled craftsmen carve totem poles, and even learned how to do tribal Indian dancing. It was also a great opportunity to sample some traditional native dishes, like corn bread and buffalo burgers.

 The festival was fun, entertaining and educational. It was a wonderful way to learn about Native American culture and celebrate the end of summer.

IV. Narratives:

1. Introduction: Set the scene ( Who/what/when/where)

Sets the scene(place, time, character(s), etc.), creates an intersting mood/ atmosphere to make the reader want to continue reading, and/or begins dramatically to capture the reader's attention.

2. Main body: Develope the story ( Describe incidents leading up to the main events and the event itself in detail. Describe people/ place/ emotions/ actions/etc)

3. Conclusion: End the story(complete the plot; describe feelings/ reactions; explain the conspuences)

* Notice:

- Before writing, you must first think of a suitable story outline, the you should decide on a detail plot, including how the story will begin, who the characters will be, where the story will happen, the events in the order you will present them, and how the story will end.

- Narratives are normally set in the past, and therefore use a variety of past tenses.For example, Past Continuous is often used to set the scene (eg: The wind was howling.); Past simple is used for the main events(eg: He entered the room, looked around, and.); Past perfect is used to describe an event before the main events(eg: She had set out in the morning, full of hope, but now she felt.)

- The sequence of events is important: before, after, then, in the evening, later, in the end, until, while, during, finally, etc.

 

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, refresh,etc.
Eg: I was/felt astounded at how beautiful Florida is in winter.
+ using a variety of nouns in expressions such as: to my amazement/ astonishment/ delight/ surprise/etc.
Eg: To my delight, the place had kept its character.
- You can express negative impressions of a place by:
+ using a variety of adjectives such as: disreputable, inhospitable, neglected
+ using a variety of present or past participles from such verbs as: disappoint, shock,etc.
Eg: ... the disappointing view of the unsightly housing.
+ using a variety of nouns in expressions such as: to my disappointment/surprise/etc.
* Useful language: Explaining Impression
The most noticeable/outstanding feature of the place is its golden garden
A huge statue of a lion is the first thing one notices upon entering the temple
Without doubt, the most impressive thing about San Francisco is the Golden Gate Bridge.
The thing which makes the strongest/most enduring impression is the hospitality of the locals.
The first thing one notices about the house is its overgrown garden.
The reason that the area is so depressing is that there are so may derelict buildings 
* Making comparisons:
To compare places or building you can use
- (just/nearly) as ... (positive degree) ... as
Eg: In those days the main streets were just as congested as they are today
- The same as
Eg: The cottage was the same as it had been fifty years before.
- (relatively/considerably) less ... (positive degree) ... than
Eg: The new buildings are considerably less ornate than the old ones.
- (much/far/considerably) more + adjective/ adverbs + than
Eg: The northern area is more picturesque than the eastern area.
- (by far) the most + adjective
Eg: Hill Manor is by far the most elegant hotel in the region.
- comparative + and + comparative
Eg: The streets are becoming dirtier and dirtier.
- the comparative ..., the + comparative
Eg: The further south you travel, the warmer it becomes.
Topic: Describe your school
	I study in XYZ Secondary School. It is one of the best schools in Singapore. It consists of several Roman style buildings. Our school has all the facilities of a modern school, such as well furnished and airy class rooms, best laboratories, a big library with a huge collection of books, a vast play ground and even a swimming pool.
	Our school building is situated in the middle. There is motorway leading from the main entrance. The playground is on the left of the motorway and a big garden on the right. When you enter the building, the principal’s room is on the left. They are all well furnished. There are twenty classrooms. Our laboratories are well equipped. The school library has an up-to-date collection of books on many subjects. Our librarian and her two assistants are very helpful.
	Our school, like other schools, has prescribed a uniform for us. We have to wear white trousers, a white shirt and a black tie. The girls have to wear white shirts and skirts.
	Our principal is very strict as he pays strict attention to behavior, punctuality and cleanliness. The most well-behaved and punctual student will be assigned as the class prefect.
	Our principal is a strict disciplinarian. He accepts the help and advice of all teachers. Though our principal is strict, he is fair and loving. He tries to find out the reason and guides us. If one violates any rules, he will be punished. Our principal is very strict in this aspect.
	Our teachers are also very strict. They teach us with the utmost care, guide us with our assessments and other preparations and help us in times of need.
	I like my school very much and am proud to be a student of that school.
III. Describing festivals/ events/ ceremonies:
1. Introduction: Set the scene ( name,time/date, place of event, reason(s) for celebrating)
2. Main body: Preparations( decorations, rehearse,etc.)
Description of actual event (costumes, food, atmosphere, activities,etc.)
3. Conclusion: feelings, comments, thoughts
* Notice:
When you describe annual events( a celebration/festival which takes place every year), present tenses are used and the style is formal. However, when giving a personal account of an event which you witnessed or took part in, past tenses are used and the style may be less formal. The passive is frequently used to describe preparations/ activities which take place.
Eg: Pumpkins are carved and placed in windows and costumes are designed
Topic: Indian Festival
	The Milwaukee Native American Indian Festival is truly and amazing event. For three days in September every year, thousands gather in Milwaukee, USA, to celebrate Indian culture. Last year, I was lucky enough to attend the festival and experience it for myself. 
	The preparations take months. Dance teams from all over the country practise to compete in the tribal Pow Wow dance contest. Indian craftsmen work to produce the many traditional items on display. Then, in the week before the festival, the stalls are put up and the food is prepared, so that everything will be ready for the big day. 
	The celebrations began at 4pm and there was plenty to see and do. I visited a traditional Indian village, watched skilled craftsmen carve totem poles, and even learned how to do tribal Indian dancing. It was also a great opportunity to sample some traditional native dishes, like corn bread and buffalo burgers. 
	The festival was fun, entertaining and educational. It was a wonderful way to learn about Native American culture and celebrate the end of summer. 
IV. Narratives:
1. Introduction: Set the scene ( Who/what/when/where)
Sets the scene(place, time, character(s), etc.), creates an intersting mood/ atmosphere to make the reader want to continue reading, and/or begins dramatically to capture the reader's attention.
2. Main body: Develope the story ( Describe incidents leading up to the main events and the event itself in detail. Describe people/ place/ emotions/ actions/etc)
3. Conclusion: End the story(complete the plot; describe feelings/ reactions; explain the conspuences)
* Notice:
- Before writing, you must first think of a suitable story outline, the you should decide on a detail plot, including how the story will begin, who the characters will be, where the story will happen, the events in the order you will present them, and how the story will end.
- Narratives are normally set in the past, and therefore use a variety of past tenses.For example, Past Continuous is often used to set the scene (eg: The wind was howling...); Past simple is used for the main events(eg: He entered the room, looked around, and...); Past perfect is used to describe an event before the main events(eg: She had set out in the morning, full of hope, but now she felt...)
- The sequence of events is important: before, after, then, in the evening, later, in the end, until, while, during, finally, etc.
* Techniques for beginning or ending stories:
- You can start your story by:
+ describing the weather, place, people, etc, using senses
+ using direct speech
+ asking a rhetorical question
+ creating mystery or suspense
+ referring to feelings or moods
+ addressing the reader directly
- You can end your story by:
+ using direct speech
+ referring to feelings or moods
+ describing people's reactions to the events developed in the main body.
+ creating mystery or suspense
+ asking a rhetorical question.
* Past tenses and time words: 
- Past habits are not described using Past Continuous. In stead, use Past Simple, "used to" or "would", with an appropriate adverb of frequency.
Eg: When I was child, my father often told me/ sometimes used to tell/ would always tell me stories to get me to fall asleep.
( Adverbs of frequency: always, usually, frequently/often, sometimes/occasionally, seldom/rarely, never)
- Past continuous:
Eg: I was watching TV while he was trying to phone/when there was a knock on the door/ at 3 o'clock yesterday.
Time words/phrases: (at the same time) as , meanwhile, when, while
- Past perfect:
Eg: By the time I arrived, my friends had already left.
Time words/phrases: after, as soon as, before, by the time, no sooner, not until, once,(only) when.
- Inversion: 
+ Some words, especially adverbs of frequency and time words/phrasals, are followed by inversion when they are used at the beginning of a sentence.
Eg: Never Tom had imagined that he would find himself in such a situation.
+ The words/ phrasals followed by inversion are negative in meaning:
Never(before/again), No sooner, No longer; Nowhere
Not often, Not always; Not only(... but also)
Seldom/Rarely = "not often"
Hardly ever/anywhere =" almost never/nowhere"
Not until. Not before
Only when = "not until/before", Only if = "not unless"
Eg: No sooner had I stepped under the shower than the doorbell rang
Not only was I exhausted, but also extremely hungry
"Not until/before" and "Only when/if" are followed by inversion in the second part of the sentence.
Eg: Not until it grew dark did they stop searching for the missing dog.
Topic: Tell about the memories of your childhood?
	The memories of childhood have their own kind of nostalgia. With the passage of time, one feels more attached to this childhood, the best period of a man’s life. A child has no worries, anxieties and no work. He is free from the dirty and filthy noises of the world. His motto of life remains: eat, drink and be merry. The charm of childhood cannot be forgotten. These memories have everlasting impression on one’s life.
	When I recollect the days of my childhood, I feel very delighted over the pleasant period which I spent in my spirits. In my childhood I was carefree, having no worries at all. I used to wander like a deer in the open field and enjoyed the natural beauty in the gardens along with my other companions.
	Certain incidents are still fresh in my mind. For instance, at the age of five, I got a severe attack of typhoid. In those days, medical science was not so advanced, so in the absence of a proper diagnosis, I was reduced to a skeleton. After taking medicine for a long period, I was cured. The doctor advised me to go to some hill-station. So my father took me to Da Lat. Due to this attack in my early age, I became very weak and I still had not been able to recover my health.
	Another thing I still remember is my swimming accident. It was on a Sunday that I went with my friends for a picnic at Vung Tau beach. Some of us were expert swimmers but unfortunately I did not know much about swimming. My friends plunged into the sea in order to swim and persuaded me to do the same. Soon I was caught by the swift current in the water and was carried away. My scream of panic was heard by my friends who rescued me from drowning. I was really very grateful to them for saving my life.
	It is this period of childhood which has been described by poets and writers. To recollect the past is to plunge ourselves in a state of nostalgia. Wordsworth, the immortal poet of England, and a great worshipper of nature, describes in his poems his childhood period, which, to him, was full of pleasant memories. I too miss those good old days which had flown by so quickly.
V. Discursive Essays:
There are three main types of discursive essays
1. For and against essays:
Present both sides of an issue, discussing points in favour of a particular topic as well as those against or the advantages and disadvantages of a particular question. Each point should be supported by justifications, examples, and/or reasons. The writer's own opinion should be presented only in the final paragraph.
* Useful expressions and linking words/phrases:
- To list points: 
Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with
Secondly, Thirdly, ..., Finally
- To list advantages:
One/Another/A further/ An additional(major) advantage of ... is ...
The main/greatest/first advantage of ... is ...
- To list disadvantages:
One/Another/A further/ An additional(major) disadvantage/drawback of ... 
The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage/drawback of ... 
Another nagative aspect of ...
- To introduce points/arguments for or against:
One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of ... / against ...
A further common criticism of ... / It could be argued that ...,

often
claimed/suggested

It is
widely
argued/maintained
that

generally
felt/believed/held


Some/many/
most people/experts/
scientists/sceptics/
critics
claim/suggeste/argue/feel that ...
maintain/believe/point/agree/hold that ...
advocate ( +ing/noun)/support the view that ...
oppose the view that

all
in favour of/against ...
0f the opinion that/convinced that ...
opposed to ...

- To add more points to the same topic:
In addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention ( the fact) that, also, not only ... but also/as well, both ... and. There i s another side to the issue/question/argument of ...
- To make constrasting points:
on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, 
it may be said/argued/claimed that, ...
Others/ many peole
Oppose this viewpoint
( strongly) disagree ...,
Claim/feel/believe this argument is incorrect/misguided
Although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that
Opponents of ... argue/believe/claim that ...
The fact that ... contradicts the belief/idea that
While it is true to say that ..., in fact
While/Although ... , it cannot be denied that ...
- To intruduce examples: 
For example, for instance, such as, like, in particular, particularly, especially,
This is (clearly) illustrated/shown by the fact that ...
One/A clear/striking/typical example of (this) ...
The fact that ... shows/illustrates that ... 
- To emphasis a point:
Clearly, obviously, it is obvious, naturally, of course, needless to say, indeed
- To express reality:
In fact, the fact (of the matter) is, actually, in practice, it is a fact that, in effect
- To make general statements:
As a (general) rule, generally, in general, on the whole, by and large, in most cases
- To make partially correct statements:
To a certain extent/ degree, to some extent/degree, in a way/sense, this is partly true (but), to a limited extent, there is some truth in (ths), in some cases, up to a point
- To explain/clarify a point:
In other words, that is to say, this/which means that
- Conclusion expressing balanced considerations/opinion indirectly
In conclusion,
On balance,
All things considered,
Taking everything into account/consideration,
To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
Finally/Lastly,
it can/must be said/claimed that ...
it seems/appears that ...
it would seem that ...
it is likely/unlikely/possible/foreseeable that ... 
it is clear/obvious that ...
there is no/little doubt that ...
the best course of action would be to ...
achieving a balance between ... would be ...
it is true to say that
although it must be said that ...
it may be concluded/said that ...
All things considered, the obvious conclusion to be drawn is that .../ 
There is no absolute answer to the question of ...,
In the light of this evidence, it is clear/obvious/etc that ...
In conclusion,
All in all,
To sum up,

It is
Clear/apparent plain/obvious evident

from

above
foregoing
Evidence
Points
arguments

- Conclusion expressing opinion directly:
In conclusion,
On balance,
All things considered,
Taking everything into account/consideration,
To conclude,
To sum up,
All in all,
Finally/Lastly,

It is my belief.opinion that ...
I (firmly) believe/feel/think that ...
I am convinced that ... 
I am inclined to believe that ...
I (do not) agree that/with ...
Taking everything into account, I therefore conclude/feel/believe (that) ...
For the above - mentioned reasons, therefore, I (firmly) believe that ...
Topic: Should teachers give pupils too much homework? Discuss.
	Many people now think that teachers give pupils too much homework. They say that it is unnecessary for children to work at home in their free time. Moreover, they argue that most teachers do not properly plan the homework tasks they give to pupils. The result is that pupils have to repeat tasks which they have already done at school.
	Recently many parents complained about the difficult homework which teachers gave to their children. The parents said that most of the homework was a waste of time, and they wanted to stop it. Spain and Turkey are two countries which stopped homework recently. In Denmark, West Germany and several other countries in Europe, teachers cannot set homework at weekends. In Holland, teachers allow pupils to stay at school to do their homework. The children are free to help one another. Similar arrangements also exist in some British schools.
	Most people agree that homework is unfair. A pupil who can do his homework in a quiet and comfortable room is in a much better position than a pupil who does his homework in a small, noisy room with the television on. Some parents help their children with their homework. Other parents take no interest at all in their children’s homework.
	It is important, however, that teachers talk to parents about homework. A teacher suggests suitable tasks for parents to do with their children. Parents are often better at teaching their own children.
2. Opinion essays:
Present the writer's personal opinion concerning the topic, clearly stated and supported by reasons and/or examples. The opposing viewpoint and reason should be included in a separate paragraph before the closing one, together with an argument that shows it is an unconvincing viewpoint. The writer's opinion should be included in the introduction, and summarised/ restated in the conclusion.
- Useful Expressions for giving Opinions:
To my mind/To my way of thinking, ...
It is my (firm) belief/opinion/view/conviction (that) ...
In my opinion/view ...	My opinion is that,
I (firmly) believe ... 	I (definitely) feel/think that ...
I am (not) convinced that ... 	I am inclined to believe that ...
I (do not) agree that/with ... 	It seems/appears to me ...
It strikes me that ... 	As far as I am concerned, ...
Topic: Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to study with a group of students. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 
Maybe someone will choose to study with a group of students, and they can give you sound reasons for their choice. I prefer to study alone because I am sure that study alone will profer you with silence, freedom and enough choice, which is indespensible for a student, but regretly, group study cannot offer.
First, when you study alone, you will not be abstracted by the sound made by other students from your study. It is fretful that when you want to study hard but others drone beside your ears like bees. And always you will be angry enough to begin to quarrel with them. That will certainly lead to an unfruitful study.
Second, many people have their own study styles. Some want to have something to eat when he is studying, some want to lie down with a book in his hand, while still some want to study without anything doing. And when you study alone, you can take your favorite way and needn't regard what others feel.
Third, studying alone profer you with enough choice as you want to do. You can have your media playing, you can open the window, also, you can sing your song when you are in a high spirit. That is great. I always sing a good song when I solve a difficult problem and to think that nobody will criticise you for making noise is a lovely experience.
So, may there some problems for studying alone, I'll prefer to study alone.
3. Essay suggesting solutions to problems:
In which the problems associated with a particular issue or situation are analysed and possible solutions are put forward, togeth

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